Thursday, 15 January 2015

A new species of Fanged Frog from Sulawesi.


Fanged Frogs, Limnonectes spp., are unique among Frogs in that the males are typically larger than the females, and frequently fight for territories, the females then mating with the males perceived as having the best territories in which to lay their eggs, a reproductive strategy common among Fish and Mammals, but otherwise unknown among Amphibians. The males show several adaptations to this lifestyle, notably enlargement of the head, which in extreme cases can comprise half the body-length, and the development of fang-like protrusions on the lower jaw, which give the group its common name. The group are known to have undergone a considerable adaptive radiation on the island of Sulawesi, although the exact number of species present, as many were originally described as populations of species described elsewhere, something which is now realized to be erroneous.

In a paper published in the journal PLoS One on 31 December 2014, Djoko Iskandar of the School of Life Sciences and Technology at Institut Teknologi Bandung, BenEvans of the Center for Environmental Genomics at McMaster University and JimmyMcGuire of the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, and Department of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, describe a new species of Fanged Frog from Sulawesi Utara, Gorontalo, Sulawesi Tengah, and Sulawesi Barat Provinces on Sulawesi, i.e. the entire of the Northern Peninsula and the western part of the Central Core of the island; it may also be present in the highlands of the interior of the Central Core.

The new species is named Limnonectes larvaepartus, meaning ‘to give birth to larvae’ in reference to the unique reproductive strategy of the species. Male adults of the species examined ranged from 39.8 to 44.5 mm, while adult females ranged from 41.2 to 44.3 mm. The Frogs are typically brownish grey, but may be dark brown, reddish brown or golden tan in colour, the underside being yellowish or cream. About 23% of specimens examined had a prominent stripe along the back.

Limnonectes larvaepartus. Male, left, and female, right, collected from Desa Uaemate along the Tasio-Tibo Road, KabupatanMamuju, Provinsi Sulawesi Barat, Sulawesi Island (02.61287S, 119.14238 E, 89 m elev.). Iskander et al. (2014).

Limnonectes larvaepartus is unique in that it apparently combines internal fertilization with the birth of live tadpoles, an otherwise unknown reproductive strategy. A number of Frog species are known to combine internal fertilization with egg laying, and members of the African genera Nectophrynoides and Nimbaphrynoides, as well as the now extinct Puerto Rican Eleutherodactylus jasperi, combine internal fertilization with the birth of small adult Frogs, but the combination of internal fertilization and live birth of tadpoles has not previously been documented.

The birth of live tadpoles was not actually observed in Limnonectes larvaepartus, however several female specimens were found to be pregnant with tadpoles, though none bore Frogs, and several gave birth to viable tadpoles while being handled, and free living tadpoles were also observed. In the direct developing Eleutherodactylus coqui, the eggs of which usually develop directly into Frogs, can hatch as tadpoles if the eggs are disturbed, so potentially Limnonectes larvaepartus could have a similar strategy, giving birth to tadpoles only when stressed, however the presence of live free-living tadpoles in the wild, combined with the absence of any partially metamorphosed Frogs in gravid females, suggests that this is unlikely.

Newborn tadpoles of Limnonectes larvaepartus. Iskander et al. (2014).

See also…

http://sciencythoughts.blogspot.co.uk/2014/12/a-new-species-of-treefrog-from.htmlA new species of Treefrog from Madagascar. Treefrogs of the genus Boophis are found in Madagascar and the Comoros Islands, reaching maximum diversity in the rainforests of eastern Madagascar. There are over 70 species in the genus, most of them being fairly recent discoveries. The genus is split into two subgenera, Boophis, which breeds in...
Fanged Frogs of the genus Limnonectesget their name from fang-like protrusions on the jaws of the male Frogs. They are unusual for Frogs in that the males are larger than the females (the reverse is usually the case), and apparently defend territories through physical contests with other males, with females mating with...
 
Fanged Frogs of the genus Limnonectesare found across southern China and Japan, as well as the Philippines, Southeast Asia and much of Indonesia. They are unusual in that the males are considerably...
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    Description OF INSTRUMENTS:

    1. Instrument: Bank Guarantee (BG/SBLC)
    2. Total Face Value: Eur/USD 5M MIN and Eur/USD 10B MAX (Ten Billion EURO/USD).
    3. Issuing Bank: HSBC Bank London, Credit Suisse and Deutsche Bank Frankfurt.
    4. Age: One Year, One Month
    5. Leasing Price: 6% of Face Value plus 2% commission fees to brokers.
    6. Delivery: Bank to Bank swift.
    7. Payment: MT-103 or MT760
    8. Hard Copy: Bonded Courier within 7 banking days.

    We are ready to close leasing/purchasing with any interested client in few banking days, if interested do not hesitate to contact me.(WE MOVE FIRST)

    Regards
    Robert Francis
    Skype :robfrancis7

    ReplyDelete
  30. Hello Everybody,
    My name is Mrs Sharon Sim. I live in Singapore and i am a happy woman today? and i told my self that any lender that rescue my family from our poor situation, i will refer any person that is looking for loan to him, he gave me happiness to me and my family, i was in need of a loan of S$250,000.00 to start my life all over as i am a single mother with 3 kids I met this honest and GOD fearing man loan lender that help me with a loan of S$250,000.00 SG. Dollar, he is a GOD fearing man, if you are in need of loan and you will pay back the loan please contact him tell him that is Mrs Sharon, that refer you to him. contact Dr Purva Pius,via email:(urgentloan22@gmail.com) Thank you.

    BORROWERS APPLICATION DETAILS


    1. Name Of Applicant in Full:……..
    2. Telephone Numbers:……….
    3. Address and Location:…….
    4. Amount in request………..
    5. Repayment Period:………..
    6. Purpose Of Loan………….
    7. country…………………
    8. phone…………………..
    9. occupation………………
    10.age/sex…………………
    11.Monthly Income…………..
    12.Email……………..

    Regards.
    Managements
    Email Kindly Contact: urgentloan22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  31. We are Providers of all types of BG and SBLC with the best workable procedures. Our BG/SBLC ranges from MT799, MT760,(Both two way confirmation), MT103/23, MT103 (Both can be one way confirmation and two way confirmation) in USD and EUROS. Issuing Bank ranges from Top world 25 banks with face value ranging from 1M EUROS/USD to 5B EUROS/USD

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!
    Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and cases to our attention and in complete confidence we will work together for the benefits of all parties involve

    For further details contact us with the below information Thank you.

    Contact Person: Mr. Tommy Champion
    Email: trustco.financeplc@gmail.com
    Skype ID: trustco.financeplc

    ReplyDelete
  32. We offer certified and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable of taking up time bound transactions.

    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M
    LEASING FEE = 4%+1%

    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC
    PRICE = 32%+1%
    MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M


    Contact Name: SILKE CHRISTA CERVENY


    Email: inquiry.dcifinancial@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. Get THE 2017 BLANK ATM Programmed Card and cash money directly in any ATM Machine around you. There is no risk of being caught, because the card has been programmed in such a way that it´s not traceable, it also has a technique that makes it impossible for the CCTV to detect you and you can only withdraw a total amount of $5,000.00 USD in a day. Now email us today at our E-mail address at: blankatmcreditcard@hotmail.com and get your card today and live that luxury life you every dream to live.

    ReplyDelete
  34. Dear Sir,

    Are you having one or two difficulties from other financial instrument lender? I want you to take a chance with us you will never regret your partnership with our firm.We have direct and efficient providers.

    I am the sole (Direct) mandate to several genuine efficient providers for lease/sales BG/ SBLC and other financial instruments, at reasonable prices, Issuance by top AAA rated Bank in Europe.Presently, we focus on BG/SBLC for Lease and Sale transactions, However, our Lease BG/SBLC/MTN is 6+2% and Sale at 32+2%.

    Should you find this interesting and acceptable? Kindly, contact us and we shall review and respond with DOA within 48hrs maximum.

    Please request for full procedure details if interested.

    For further inquiry contact:

    Robert Francis,
    Skype: robfrancis7
    +447031956543
    +447546769978
    robertfrancis767@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  35. Are you an individual businessman or a business organisation that wishes to expand in business ??, we offer financial instrument such as BGs, SBLCs,MTNs, LCs, CDs and others on lease and sales at a rate of 4%+2% of the face value and reasonable conditionfrom a genuine provider. You are at liberty to engage our leased facilities into trade programs as well as in signatory project(s) such as Aviation, Agriculture, Petroleum, Telecommunication and any other project(s) etc.

    If Interested kindly contact me via
    Email:~ summitfinancialplc@gmail.com
    Skype ID:summitfinancialplc

    With our financial/bank instrument you can establish line of credit with your bank and/or secure loan for your projects in which our bank instrument will serve collateral in your bank to fund your project.

    We deliver with time and precision as set forth in the agreement. Our terms and Conditions are reasonable and we work directly with issuing bank lease providers, this instrument can be monetized on your behalf for upto 100% funding. Intermediaries/Consultants/Brokers are welcome to bring their clients and are 100% protected. In complete confidence, we will work together for the benefits of all parties involved.

    All relevant business information will be provided upon request.

    BROKERS ARE WELCOME & 100% PROTECTED!!!

    If Interested kindly contact me via
    Email:~ summitfinancialplc@gmail.com
    Skype ID:summitfinancialplc

    serious enquiry only.

    Reliable Provider for BG/SBLC(Bank Guarantee/Standby Letter of Credit)

    ReplyDelete
  36. I have my ATM card already programmed to withdraw the maximum of $ 4,000 a day for a maximum of 20 days. I'm so happy with this because I got mine last week and I've used it to get $ 44,000. Mr Martins is giving the card just to help the poor and needy even though it is illegal but it is something nice and it is not like another scam pretending to have the ATM cards blank. And no one gets caught when using the card. Get yours today by sending a mail to martinshackers22@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  37. We offer certifIed and verifiable bank instruments via Swift Transmission from a genuine provider capable of taking up time bound transactions.


    FOR LEASING OF BG/SBLC MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M LEASING FEE = 4%+2%

    FOR PURCHASE OF FRESH CUT BG/SBLC PRICE = 34%+2% MINIMUM FACE VALUE OF BG/SBLC = EUR/USD 1M

    Contact Name: Alex James
    Email:charmfinanceplc@gmail.com
    Skype ID:alexjam1278077

    ReplyDelete
  38. Hello dear,


    We issue all bank instrument such as bank draft,BG/SBLC, MT103 etc.
    Providers bank moves first

    Contact me for any kind of bank instrument.
    Email: martinsmithword@gmail.com


    Martin Smith
    Thanks

    ReplyDelete
  39. We offer fresh cut bank instrument for lease, such as BG, SBLC, MTN, Bank Bonds, Bank Draft, T strips and others. Leased Instruments can be obtained at minimal expense to the borrower compared to other banking options. This offer is opened to both individuals and corporate bodies.

    DESCRIPTION OF INSTRUMENTS

    1. Instrument: Funds backed Bank Guarantee(BG) ICC-600
    2. Currency : USD/EURO
    3. Age of Issue: Fresh Cut
    4. Term: One year and One day
    5. Contract Amount: United State Dollars/Euros (Buyers Face Value)
    6. Price : Buy:32%+1, Lease: 4%+2
    7. Subsequent tranches: To be mutually agreed between both parties
    8. Issuing Bank: Top RATED world banks like HSBC, Barclays, ING Dutch Bank, Llyods e.t.c
    9. Delivery Term: Pre advise MT199 or MT799 first. Followed By SWIFT MT760
    10. Payment Term: MT799 & Settlement via MT103
    11. Hard Copy: By Bank Bonded Courier


    Interested Agents,Brokers, Investors and Individual proposing international project funding should contact us for directives.We will be glad to share our working procedures with you upon request

    Name: Ardan Clooney

    Email:brandfinance33@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete